Appendix BAlternatives Establishing EMP Passing Student Choice Student Choice Random Source
Comprehensive List of Alternatives to the Harmful Use of Dogs and Cats in Undergraduate, Veterinary, and Medical EducationAs described in this report, Animalearn discovered that 52% of colleges and universities are using live or dead dogs and/or cats, and 26% of colleges and universities are using live dogs or cats for teaching or training purposes. Animalearn also discovered that 63% of biology departments responding to a separate survey are using cat cadavers to teach life science1.
The harmful use of animals is unnecessary, as there are a wide number of innovative alternatives available to replace dissection and live animal experiments in education. These rely on advanced computer technologies, mannequins, and models, as well as actual human and animal cadavers obtained from ethical sources, and can be used to teach anatomy, simulate biological functions, and practice clinical and surgical skills. Simulations can be enhanced with virtual reality components that allow 3-D interaction or haptic feedback (touch or tactile sensations such as vibrations or resistance).
Alternatives that do not involve the harmful use of animals allow students to perform tasks at their own pace, repeating if necessary until they master the material or the techniques being taught2. These alternatives also often cost less over the long-term than using animals. Thus, these alternatives are humane, educationally effective, and economical, saving countless animal lives while also providing students with high quality experiences in the life sciences.
Many of these alternatives can be borrowed for free from Animalearn’s The Science Bank.
A. Alternatives to Dissection and Live Animal Experimentation in Life Science Education Described below are several of the alternatives available for use in undergraduate, veterinary, and medical education.
As documented in Sec. Section III, cats, and occasionally dogs, continue to be used for dissection in undergraduate biology classrooms. These animals are used in comparative anatomy classes, or as surrogates for humans in human anatomy and physiology classes3. There are, however, alternatives to using dogs and cats in undergraduate education.
Software, virtual dissections, and models can be used to teach both animal and human anatomy and physiology, eliminating animal use entirely. Indeed, virtual reality simulations, which are interactive and engaging4, are being implemented in many undergraduate life science classes by faculty who are looking to enhance or improve their classroom teaching5.
Faculty at City University of New York’s New York City College of Technology, for example, are using virtual reality experiments to engage biology students in hybrid lab courses for General Biology I and II and Anatomy and Physiology I and II. Interactive tools developed for these virtual reality courses are touted as giving the “YouTube generation” an alternative to traditional labs6. Such lab simulations can replace wet labs, and professors indicate that they find the hybrid courses to be superior to traditional classroom and lab situations7. Additionally, at University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse, faculty from the biology department have created “ZooLab: A Website for Animal Biology,” to provide a virtual laboratory experience for students8.
In addition to software simulations, human cadavers can also be used for dissection (instead of animal cadavers) through the establishment of willed body programs, an opportunity that was previously only available to medical students. In cases where animal cadavers are still desired, these can be ethically sourced through a body donation program rather than purchased from biological supply companies or pounds.
a. Software for Animal Dissection
In courses where it is important to teach animal anatomy or physiology, there are several computer programs that can be used to simulate animal dissection.
• Neotek’s Cat Dissection Laboratory CD-ROM
Neotek’s Cat Dissection Laboratory CD-ROM utilizes 3-dimensional virtual reality technology to offer 80 dissections, including an examination of the cat’s external anatomy, skeleton, muscles, internal cavities, and the nervous, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and the male and female reproductive systems; and offers a tutorial, lecture, and quiz mode9.
• ITG Catlab
Another notable program is ITG Catlab, which offers a complete multimedia dissection of the cat anatomy, available on CD or through online subscription. The program includes over 300 laboratory-quality images, tutorial modules for the skeleton, muscles, digestive system, urogenital system, circulatory system and heart, and nervous system of the cat. Each module contains a self-assessment exam and is recommended for medical, dental, physical, and occupational therapy students10.
• DryLab Fetal Pig
Also available is the DryLab Suite of dissections, which includes dissections of the cat, fetal pig, rat, perch, frog, earthworm, and other animals. Nancy L. Harrison, MD, a pathologist at Scripps Memorial Hospital in Chula Vista, California, reviewed the wide variety of simulations and indicated that DryLab Fetal Pig11 is one of her favorites because the specimens look identical in quality to tissue with which she works on a daily basis12.
b. Software for Human Anatomy and Physiology
When the aim of the undergraduate biology class is to teach human anatomy and physiology, improvements in technology and in medical tissue preparation make it possible to use human exhibits at little or no cost13. Through the use of simulations and human cadavers, dogs and cats do not need to be used as surrogates to teach human anatomy any longer.
• VH Dissector
One of the many human anatomy alternatives available is the VH Dissector CD-ROM, developed by scientists at the University of Colorado (CU). Combining virtual reality technology with cadaver dissection, VH Dissector features a virtual body containing over 2,000 anatomic structures that replicate actual cadaver dissection14.
• Other Human Anatomy Programs
Other notable human anatomy programs include the Complete Human Anatomy Series on DVD15, A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy16, and Anatomy Revealed: The Face CD-ROM, as well as online human anatomy websites such as the National Library of Medicine’s Visible Human Project, also based at CU17.
Realistic models can be used in place of dogs and cats to teach anatomy and physiology, and are often used in conjunction with computer simulation to offer students a multidimensional learning experience.
• The Pregnant Cat Model
The Pregnant Cat Model18 is just one example of a realistic dissection model, featuring over 100 individual anatomical details of the cat.
• Anatomical Animal Models and Bone Clones
Anatomical Animal Models, offered by Rescue Critters Company, feature synthetic dog and cat skeletons, as well as canine knee, hip, shoulder, jaw, ear, and skin models. Rescue Critters has also developed Bone Clones, which are models of skulls from the common house cat and several dog breeds. All of the Rescue Critters products are made from artificial materials19.
d. Willed Body Donation Programs/Educational Memorial Programs
Once only available to medical students, now undergraduate anatomy classrooms are using human cadavers20 to teach human anatomy and physiology, allowing them to forgo using animal cadavers as surrogates21. Colleges and universities can establish willed body donation programs, a low-cost and engaging alternative to using dogs and cats22. This can be accomplished by building relationships with local hospitals and medical schools, and by purchasing a freezer. University of California at Davis, and California State University- San Bernardino are among several universities in the United States offering this opportunity to undergraduates.
Similarly, colleges and universities are also creating educational memorial programs (EMPs) to obtain ethically sourced animal cadavers [See Attachment F1]. An animal cadaver is considered ethically sourced if the animal is euthanized or dies naturally due to natural causes, illness, or injury. However, an animal cadaver purchased or obtained because of “companion animal overpopulation” from a pound, for example, is not considered an ethically sourced cadaver.
Thus, instead of purchasing animal cadavers from Class A dealers and Class B dealers, including biological supply companies, undergraduate anatomy and physiology programs can build relationships with veterinary schools, veterinary hospitals, or clinics to obtain ethically sourced animal cadavers through EMPs. University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point is an example of a university that has used ethically sourced animal cadavers to provide learning tools for undergraduate biology students.
2. Veterinary Education Animal cadavers are used in veterinary education to teach anatomy and physiology, and live animals are used in harmful or terminal labs to teach clinical skills, procedures, and surgeries. However, as noted by Lara Rasmussen, DVM23, former Director of Surgery and Clinical Skills at Western University of Health Sciences’ College of Veterinary Medicine, “A live animal is not the best teaching tool. It’s so complex. It’s like taking a flying novice and putting them in the cockpit and expecting them to fly a plane24.”
A wide range of simulators, from software to interactive manikins, are available for students to gain familiarity and confidence with performing a variety of procedures. Students can also participate in shelter medicine programs, in which they perform procedures that benefit their animal patients (e.g., spays and neuters), rather than participating in terminal labs in which the animals are euthanized. In addition, educational memorial programs (EMPs) can be established to provide an ethical source of animal cadavers, instead of supporting the cruelty associated with purchasing cadavers from biological supply companies and shelters (ref. Sec. 3).
With these kinds of alternatives available, the harmful and terminal use of animals in veterinary medical education can be completely eliminated without sacrificing quality. As a result, many veterinary schools are phasing out the harmful use of animals.
a. Software for Anatomy, Physiology, and Basic Surgical Skills
Interactive software programs are being used in veterinary schools to teach anatomy, physiology, disease, and diagnosis.
• Canine Osteology
The Canine Osteology CD25, developed at University of California – Davis (UC Davis), is an interactive program that gives veterinary students the opportunity to view full color images of the canine skeleton and includes a list of structures present in each image26.
• The Virtual Heart
Also developed at UC Davis, The Virtual Heart CD27 is a computer program that combines realistic imagery with interactive 3-D control of dissected and non-dissected hearts. It allows users to view the heart from many angles and to retrieve information about any visible structure. Additional features include digital video of conventional and Doppler ultrasonic scans; audio of both normal and abnormal heart sounds; views of cardiac pathologies; cardiac cycle animation; waveform tracings; microscopic images of cardiac tissues; radiographs; and an annotated EKG28. UC Davis also developed another learning tool featuring web-based case studies in small animal cardiovascular medicine utilizing clinical cases of dogs and cats29.
• Virtual Canine Anatomy
An interactive multimedia program created to teach anatomy to veterinary students is the Virtual Canine Anatomy: The Head CD-ROM, developed at Colorado State University - Fort Collins (CSU). Used by students at CSU, in addition to other veterinary students worldwide, the program provides an interactive interface allowing for hybrid, self-paced, individualized learning. Research suggests this program is an effective tool to enhance the study of anatomy30.
Veterinary schools in United Kingdom have developed a variety of CDs and DVDs through their Computer-aided Learning in Veterinary Education (CLIVE) consortium31. Examples include Cases in Clinical Neurology (Dogs and Cats)32; Diagonostic Procedures in Canine and Feline Dermatology33; Normal Canine Retina34; The Canine Abdomen35, and many others.
• Surgery Videos
Various surgery videos demonstrating technique are available on the College of Veterinary Medicine’s website at Michigan State University. Topics include spay/neuter, anesthesia orientation, aseptic technique, suture patterns, instrument handling, and many others36.
b. Models and Specimens for Anatomy
Realistic models and ethically-sourced specimens depicting an animal’s internal structure are other alternatives that can be used as part of an anatomy curriculum in veterinary medical education.
• Veterinary Models by GPI
GPI offers canine models for the veterinary student, available in “bone-like” material for the elbow, knee, shoulder, ear, pelvis, jaw, heart, and five-piece vertebrae37. In addition, the company offers a feline jaw model38.
• Ethically-Sourced Plastinated Specimens
Plastinated anatomical medical specimens39 are often produced from cadavers purchased from biological supply companies, and are not often ethically sourced (ref. Sec. 3). There are, however, enterprises, such as QV Medical Products, LLC, that offer plastinated specimens from ethically sourced dogs and cats, including canine hip joints, canine and feline hearts, canine pelvis, etc.40 (The company does, however, acknowledge that their plastinated specimen casts and skeletons of species other than dogs are not produced from ethically sourced cadavers.)
Educational memorial programs (EMPs) are another humane alternative, allowing veterinary schools the ability to produce their own plastinated specimens from ethically-sourced cadavers.
c. Manikins and Skills-Based Simulators
Students can practice skills and techniques on models and manikins before working with live animals. Manikins, which are more interactive than models, can facilitate training in animal handling, blood sampling, intubation, thoracentesis, and CPR techniques. Through the use of simulators, technically demanding procedures, procedures involving stress or harm, and critical care cases can be mastered by students without the use of live animals41.
• Canine Head Model
The Canine Head Model, developed at UC Davis, is a vascular access training model42. The Canine Head Model consists of a sculpted mandrel containing channels for a simulated jugular vein covered with moveable latex “skin.” While offering students visual and tactile capabilities, these models allow students to learn how to give injections, place catheters, and draw blood, giving them increased confidence before treating a live animal43.
SimPooch, developed at Colorado State University (CSU), is a three-dimensional canine head prototype, created for the purpose of acupuncture education44. SimPooch is a canine model with haptic capability (which provides tactile feedback), allowing student acupuncturists to practice their technique without using live animals, and without causing any pain or distress. The model also provides assessment and feedback for both the student and teacher45.
• Hollow Organ Surgical Simulator and Skin/Suture Pattern Simulator
Dr. Daniel Smeak , Professor of Surgery at Colorado State University College of Veterinary Medicine, created surgical models such as the Hollow Organ Surgical Simulator and the Skin/Suture Pattern Simulator to allow students to refine their hand/eye motor skills, which are required to perform surgery46. The Hollow Organ Simulator is a collapsible, hollow-laminated mold of a canine stomach (when viewed through a ventral midline abdominal approach). The Skin/Suture Pattern Simulator imitates the suturing qualities of dermal tissue and consists of a flat laminated urethane-polymer mold. It is used by several universities, including Colorado State University, Michigan State University, and Western University of Health Sciences47.
• Skills-Based Simulators
Simulators modeled on Universal Skills-Based Learning Theory focus upon building and refining skills important to students of veterinary medicine, such as psychomotor, perceptual, behavioral, cognitive, and problem-solving. These simulators allow students to practice and refine such skills in an isolated manner, without harming an animal48. An example is the “Don’t Over Do it” universal skills training device49,50.
• Critical Care Jerry and Critical Care Fluffy
Critical Care Jerry and Critical Care Fluffy are two of Rescue Critters’ training skills manikins51. Rescue Critters developed their brand of “Mannikins” after realizing that there was a lack of resources available to train people on companion animal first aid skills, and have “subsequently embraced the Animal Welfare Act’s call to ‘refine, reduce, and replace’ live animals in veterinary training as part of their official mandate52.”
Critical Care Fluffy is a life-size feline manikin, with a realistic airway and representations of the trachea, esophagus, epiglottis, tongue, articulated jaw, and working lungs, as well as an artificial pulse. Fluffy can be used in CPR and anesthesia training for procedures such as mouth-to-snout rescue breathing, endotracheal tube placement, manual ventilation, and chest compressions53. She can also be used to teach cat restraint, bandaging, and intravenous access with several practice sites for venous access.
Critical Care Jerry, a realistic life-size canine mannikin approximating a 60-70 pound dog, can be used at colleges, veterinary and medical schools, or veterinary technician schools. Jerry provides jugular vascular access, and has an artificial pulse and a realistic airway with representations of the trachea, esophagus, and epiglottis, in addition to working lungs. He can be used in endotracheal placement, compressions, and mouth-to-snout resuscitation54, and can aspirate air & fluid from the thoracic cavity to simulate trauma. Jerry is also designed to perform IV draw and injections, and can be used to demonstrate splinting and bandaging.
Other Rescue Critter Mannikins include Goldie K-9 BHS Simulator55, Female K-9 Urinary Catheter Training Mannikin56, K-9 Intubation Trainer57, and the K-9 Thoracentesis Mannikin58.
d. Surgical Simulators
Simulations are useful tools for surgery59, critical care, and clinical-skills practice, and can range from suture and surgery training devices to “patients” controlled by a centralized computer60,61,62. Virtual reality is a critical component of many advanced simulation programs, since it provides an opportunity to practice psychomotor skills and procedures in an interactive, multi-sensory manner. Virtual reality systems can provide 3-D visual experiences, for example, and/or haptic feedback (tactile information.)
Simulation technology, while relatively common in human medical education, is a newer concept in veterinary medicine63. Researchers, educators, and computer scientists, however, are developing simulators that translate simulation technologies for human medicine into those useful for veterinary surgical training. Similarly, most virtual reality programs in biomedical education have been used for skills enhancement for physicians64, but some veterinary colleges have partnered with computer scientists to develop virtual reality simulation for surgery practice65.
• Virtual Reality Surgical Simulation66
In what is now part of the core curriculum for veterinary surgical skill training, the Ohio State University’s (OSU) College of Veterinary Medicine is integrating the use of low-cost, high resolution simulation to help increase surgical skills training quality, support the reduction of surgical morbidity associated with inexperienced surgeons, and indirectly support a reduction in the use of animals. The project is integrated into OSU’s College of Veterinary Medicine’s curriculum. The project has been funded in part by the Alternatives Research & Development Foundation (ARDF)67, and is directed by Dr. Mary McLoughlin, Associate Professor of Veterinary Medicine, and Mr. Don Stredney, Supercomputer Center Director68.
OSU has acquired data sets to create useful reconstructions of canine, feline, and equine surgeries. The simulations also offer haptic capability, so the students can “feel” forces applied during interaction with the simulator, such as the pressures applied to the drill during a simulated laminectomy, a type of surgical procedure on the bones in the spinal column. The surgical simulation is being integrated into a third year core surgery skills course, where 140 students per year work with the simulator.
According to Dr. McLoughlin, using digital models for clinical, basic research, and education will further show that digital representations are not only valuable alternative methods to learning, but also integral to clinical practice69.
• Live Surgery Simulator70
Another unique and valuable alternative to live surgery has been developed by Dr. Emad Aboud, a neurosurgeon at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. Dr. Aboud’s live surgery simulator is used in medical schools71 and has been adapted for use in veterinary medical schools. Funded in part by ARDF, this advanced surgical simulator offers a realistic alternative to terminal or otherwise harmful surgery on dogs, cats, and other animals.
This simulator allows any kind of surgical procedure to be practiced under the conditions of live surgery, using a human cadaver or an ethically sourced animal cadaver72,73. A major artery and vein of the cadaver are attached to an artificial blood reservoir, which in turn is attached to a machine that provides a pulsating pressure, filling the vessels with artificial blood, allowing the cadaver specimen to bleed and arteries to pulsate.
Dissection, surgical, and microsurgical procedures such as endoscopic and endovascular procedures, vascular suturing, end-to-end attachments (anastomoses), and bleeding management (hemostasis) can all be conducted using this simulator74. “Students can make skin incisions, suture the incision site, dissect soft tissues, ligate and coagulate bleeding vessels, and practice vascular and intestinal anastamoses, transplantations, and angiograms,” according to Dr. Aboud. In addition, students can withdraw blood samples and insert central and arterial lines.
Dr. Aboud’s simulator is cost effective, and its components can be acquired and assembled for less than $5,000, and it can be reused repeatedly. Dr. Aboud is currently seeking a producer for this model, but until it is commercially produced, he will provide instructions on how universities can assemble the simulator for their own use75.
• METI Human Patient Simulator76
Medical Education Technologies, Inc., Human Patient Simulator77, developed at the University of Florida (UFL), is an effective teaching device originally used for educating physicians but now available for veterinary education. The human manikin was converted to a gorilla, without the need to completely reinvent a simulator for veterinary students, after a pilot program at UFL found that the simulator was effective for teaching in veterinary medicine78.
The simulator models frequent physiologic responses to various drugs, or combinations of drugs, changes in organ function, and mechanical mishaps that can occur during anesthesia and surgery79. Researchers indicated that it gave students a better background for treating their patients successfully in the future, as well as increased confidence in patient care80.
e. Willed Body Donation Programs
There is a growing trend towards using animals that are ethically sourced81 for veterinary education82. Educational Memorial Programs (EMPs), or Willed Body Donation programs, can be established to provide ethically sourced animals, and are an effective alternative to the harmful use of dogs and cats for teaching83,84.
Universities that have EMPs in place for companion animals include, Tufts University; Western University of Health Sciences; University of Wisconsin; Washington State University; University of California – Davis; University of Minnesota; University of Missouri; and Mississippi State University. University of Florida – Gainesville currently has a willed body donation program in place for large animals. Texas A&M University states that it has a willed body program, yet some of the animals are obtained through shelters and pounds due to companion animal overpopulation which does not fall under the definition of ethically sourced animals85.
Western University of Health Sciences’ College of Veterinary Medicine in Pomona, California, utilizes animal donation as its sole source of animal specimens for learning purposes. The Willed Deceased Animals for Veterinary Education (WAVE) program is an EMP that includes companion animals and large animals. A memorial service is held at the beginning of each term to acknowledge the humans donating their companion animals and to celebrate their pets’ lives86.
Tufts University’s Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine in Massachusetts has a model EMP that is successful and is well received by students87,88. Established in 1998 after students and faculty raised ethical concerns regarding obtaining and killing healthy animals for dissection, the program has served approximately 900 students in 11 years89. Tufts’ EMP allows students to work with ethically sourced dogs of various sizes, as well as cats, and Tufts is initiating a large animal EMP as well.
Donated animals offer case-based or problem-based learning (PBL) opportunities, where students receive a complete medical history. Students can rotate between stations, as opposed to solely focusing on their own dissections, increasing their knowledge of pathological conditions and anatomy surrounding the pathologies90. At the end of the course, student-dissected animals can be saved for next years’ class. Tufts has also set up a plastination unit for long term use of specimens.
With Tufts’ annual caseload of 26,000 companion animals, there are enough client donated pet bodies to sustain the entire first year anatomy programs, clinical skills labs, surgery labs, faculty research, and continuing education programs of the school. Requests come in across the country from guardians who wish to donate their companion animals to the EMP.
Dr. M.S.A. Kumar, Professor and head anatomist, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, indicates that there is an increasing awareness and concern regarding shelters selling animal cadavers, and he believes that in 5- 10 years, shelters will not be selling cadavers to vendors or giving them to veterinary schools91. He encourages other universities to consider instituting an EMP, noting that the quality of anatomy education at Tufts University is equal to any university in the U.S92.
Veterinary clinics can be partners in offering EMPs. Clinics can establish a system of communication with a university so that, if an animal is euthanized at a veterinarian’s office external to the campus and the animal’s guardian would like to donate the body for education, the cadaver can be transported to the university.
Dr. Kumar estimates that an EMP costs about $4,000 for a university to initiate, assuming the school owns no embalming pumps, and approximately $200 to maintain annually. He estimates that $20 is saved per cadaver by the EMP compared to the cost of acquiring embalmed dogs from biological supply companies, even factoring in start up costs. Thus, EMPs provide an effective, ethical, and cost-efficient alternative to purchasing animal cadavers from biological supply companies and shelters.
f. Blood-Donor Programs
The University of California-Davis’ College of Veterinary Medicine has an EMP in place, and it recently established a Blood Bank in February 200893. The Blood bank is a donor program, which is being used to develop large, reliable sources of blood products for canine patients at the school of veterinary medicine with the goal of being able to save animal lives through transfusions94. The hope is to develop a group of 300 to 400 regular donors95, who are offered an initial health screening and who could donate blood a few times a year96. This program replaces their prior programs, and lessens stress on animals who would be housed at the university and used specifically for blood donation. Previously, the hospital “obtained blood, for its canine patients from a group of about 30 blood-donor dogs that live for a few years for the hospital, and are adopted out97.” Due to cost issues, the blood donation program is currently limited to dogs, and UC-Davis continues to keep its on-campus colony of blood donor cats98.
University of Florida also has a Blood Donor program for dogs, the UFVMC Canine Blood Donor Program99. For donors, the university provides physical examinations, preventative vaccinations, and food and treats100.
g. Shelter Medicine Programs
Instituting a shelter medicine program allows a veterinary school to eliminate terminal surgical labs using dogs and cats101. Shelter medicine programs enable students to obtain hands-on experience performing surgeries, such as spays and neuters, that are beneficial to both the animal patient and the would-be veterinarians.
When animal shelters and vet schools collaborate in this way, they are able to provide students with crucial opportunities for necessary skills acquisition, particularly for teaching medical and surgical skills and post-operative recovery, as well as experience handling live animals and working with live tissue102,103. In addition, these programs also provide an important service for local communities, as they are vital in helping to reduce the overpopulation of dogs and cats104.
There are currently 14 North American veterinary schools that offer some form of elective shelter clinical experience, while 11 of these schools provide surgical experience with shelter animals, either at the shelter or at the university105.
Several veterinary schools are able to facilitate shelter medicine programs due to grants provided from Maddie’s Fund, a foundation established in 1999 to help fund no-kill shelters. Maddie’s Fund offers grants to vet schools so that the specialized knowledge and skills of these institutions’ faculty and students can be included in the effort to save shelter animals in need106.
University of California – Davis (UC Davis) School of Veterinary Medicine instituted the first shelter medicine program in 2000 after receiving a grant from Maddie’s Fund, and focuses on instruction and hands-on training for veterinary students, diagnostic and medical support for shelters, and research to improve shelter animal medical care107.
Fortunately, partnerships with universities and local animal shelters are steadily increasing. Today, veterinary schools including Auburn University, Cornell University, Colorado State University, University of Florida, University of Georgia, Iowa State University, and University of Pennsylvania either have shelter medicine programs or externship opportunities for students provided by grants from Maddie’s Fund.
Other shelter medicine programs operate at The Ohio State University, Oregon State University, University of Illinois, University of Tennessee, and Washington State University. Recently Louisiana State University and Mississippi State University, through funding from the Humane Society of the United States, were able to start shelter medicine programs108. With the help of a grant from Animalearn, University of Georgia is in the process of establishing its own shelter medicine program109.
Shelter medicine programs range from offering experiences with spay and neuter surgeries (such as at the University of Florida)110,111, to also including experience with diagnosis (as at Oregon State University)112, disease, and behavioral problems (as at Ohio State University)113.
According to Sharon Harmon, Executive Director of the Oregon Humane Society, “This is the ultimate win-win situation for the students and the animals.” Similarly, the Associate Dean for Students at Oregon State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine explained that the partnership with the Oregon Humane Society provided its veterinary students an “unparalleled experience114.” Ohio State University students likewise indicated that the shelter medicine program improved both their confidence and introductory skills in surgery115.
Another valuable facet of a shelter medicine programs are “trap-neuter/spay-return” (TNR) programs, which address the plight of feral or stray cat populations who instead of being euthanized at a shelter can be humanely trapped, sterilized, vaccinated, and returned to their colonies and monitored by caretakers. The use of TNR programs is supported by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) and studies have shown that TNR is a successful method of controlling carefully monitored cat colonies by preventing growth due to reproduction. Studies of populations of cats in communities across the United States indicates that TNR is an effective method of control. When performed on a large scale, the success of TNR programs is seen at animal shelters, due to fewer cats being euthanized116.
The TNR movement began in the 1980s and has been advanced primarily through non-governmental activities. In 1989, the Stanford Cat Network formed to manage cats abandoned by students on the Stanford University campus, the first school to address this growing problem117,118. Today there are several successful TNR programs at schools including Auburn University - Operation Cat Nap, Stanford University - Stanford Cat Network, Texas A&M College Station - Aggies Feral Cat Alliance of Texas, UC Davis - The Feline Medicine Club: Feral Cat Project, and the University of Texas Austin - The Campus Cat Coalition119. Operation Catnip, the largest TNR program in the United States, was founded in 1998 at the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine120, while Auburn University’s Operation Cat Nap got its start in January 2000 after numerous feral cats and litters of kittens were found on the College of Veterinary Medicine’s campus. Soon after their discovery a TNR program was implemented here to non-lethally control the cat population121.
3. Medical Education Other high-risk endeavors, such as flight and military training, have recognized the value of simulation much earlier than medical education. Adopting their model, however, medical education is now successfully incorporating simulation technology into their training programs.
As a result, U.S. medical schools are phasing out the use of dogs for teaching purposes122,123 including terminal dog labs, in which healthy animals are killed following teaching exercises in physiology, pharmacology, and surgery. According to officials from USDA, HHS, and NIH, “[t]he use of human cadavers and manikins as surgical models, and more importantly, advancements in the development of computerized simulators, have replaced the use of the dog in these specific curricula125,126.”
A medical simulation is a device or set of conditions that imitates patients, anatomy, or clinical skills, and that mimics life situations requiring medical treatment127. Available in many forms, it can replace the use of companion animals and other species as human substitutes in medical education programs128,129, and several medical simulators are even being translated into veterinary simulators130.
The rising costs and challenges of healthcare in a changing economic landscape demand less costly, more efficient, and more intense methods of training. The long-term costs of simulators are lower than the cumulative costs of using animals131. Additionally, administrative and logistical costs are higher with animal use than with simulation. Due to the necessary close supervision required by faculty when using live animals in training, the utilization of dogs and cats in medical education is a drain on faculty time and resources. Alternatives require less faculty input, putting less pressure on faculty time and budgets132.
The American Medical Student Association (AMSA) strongly encourages the replacement of animal labs with non-animal alternatives in medical education133, and condemns the use of dogs and cats from pounds, shelters, and Class B random source dealers, including those who were household pets134. The AMSA also encourages the utilization of non-animal teaching materials and methods in continuing medical education136; urges that all medical schools allow the use of live animals to be optional for students who, for moral or pedagogical reasons, feel such use is unnecessary; and encourages the provision of educational materials for these students137. Additionally, the American Heart Association, (AHA) “does not require or endorse the use of live animals” for Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) class138, and distances itself from any of those programs that continue to use animals139.”
Software can be used in human medicine for teaching anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and related disciplines, without requiring the use of animals.
• The Virtual Physiology Series
The Virtual Physiology Series, consisting of five interactive simulation CD-ROMs including SimNerv, SimMuscle, SimVessel, SimHeart, and SimPatch, allows students to illustrate concepts or perform tasks without harming animals. This series can completely reproduce experiments previously done with animals in a wet lab, and covers the entire field of nerve-muscle physiology, simulating all classic experiments conducted by medical, dental, veterinary, zoology, and science students. Manufacturers of this software include cLabs140 and Thieme Publishers141.
b. Human Patient Simulators
Human patient simulators (HPS) are digitally enhanced mannequins, with the animation capability to produce respiratory movement, palpable pulses, heart and lung sounds, realistic airway anatomy, twitches and spasms, simulated body fluids. A system computer governs these activities, and also regulates drug function, metabolism, cardiac function, gas exchange, and fluid balance142. The simulator allows for replicating clinical scenarios, providing vital signs, breath and heart sounds, arterial pulses, lungs that take in oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide, etc. Students can both diagnose and treat reactions to pharmaceuticals, and perform anaesthesia, intubation, chest tube insertion, and other skills143,144.
• Live Surgery Simulator 145
Dr. Emad Aboud, a neurosurgeon at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, created an advanced simulator that is currently being used in both medical and veterinary schools to model live surgery. It has been used at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock in its neuroscience center, as well as the University of Miami, Swaida National Hospital in Syria, and the International Neurosciences Institutes in Hanover, Germany146.
Dr. Aboud’s simulator allows any kind of surgical procedure to be practiced under the conditions of live surgery, using a human cadaver or an ethically sourced animal cadaver147,148. A major artery and vein of the cadaver are attached to an artificial blood reservoir, which in turn is attached to a machine that provides a pulsating pressure, filling the vessels with artificial blood, allowing the cadaver specimen to bleed and arteries to pulsate.
Dissection, surgical, and microsurgical procedures such as endoscopic and endovascular procedures, vascular suturing, end-to-end attachments (anastomoses), and bleeding management (hemostasis) can all be conducted using this simulator149. “Students can make skin incisions, suture the incision site, dissect soft tissues, ligate and coagulate bleeding vessels, and practice vascular and intestinal anastamoses, transplantations, and angiograms,” according to Dr. Aboud. In addition, students can withdraw blood samples and insert central and arterial lines.
Dr. Aboud’s simulator is cost effective, and its components can be acquired and assembled for less than $5,000, and it can be reused repeatedly. Dr. Aboud is currently seeking a producer for this model, but until it is commercially produced, he will provide instructions on how universities can assemble the simulator for their own use150.
• METI Human Patient Simulator151
Medical Education Technologies, Inc. (METI) Human Patient Simulator152, developed at the University of Florida (UFL), is an effective teaching device for educating physicians (and can also be utilized in veterinary medicine). The simulator models frequent physiologic responses to different drugs, combinations of drugs, changes in organ function, and mechanical mishaps that occur during anesthesia and surgery153.
• Endoscopy AccuTouch
Another human patient simulator, Endoscopy AccuTouch®, is a computer based surgical simulator that covers endoscopic procedures including flexible bronchoscopy, and upper and lower gastrointestinal flexible endoscopy154. While endoscopic procedures are some of the most commonly practiced medical procedures today, the motor skills required to successfully perform these can be difficult to train and assess. The simulator uses haptic technology, providing realistic force-feedback, replacing animal use with a mannequin155.
c. Virtual Reality Simulators
The term “virtual reality” refers to advanced software with interactive capabilities and powerful three dimensional graphics, allowing the user to become immersed within the experience. Virtual Reality Simulators (VRS) can use high fidelity simulation to replicate procedures in laparoscopy and endoscopy where anaesthetized dogs and/or pigs would otherwise be used156.
The Medicine Meets Virtual Reality Program (MMVR) is an annual convention dedicated to the subject of virtual reality and medicine, and prides itself on examining and guiding the “future of healthcare157.”
B. Animalearn’s The Science Bank
Animalearn’s The Science Bank158 is a free loan program that can help trim thousands of dollars from life science budgets while offering students the latest in innovative technology for learning life science159. The Science Bank consists of over 450 alternatives to dissection, including virtual dissection programs with a considerable range in style, imagery, educational level, animation, and technique to suit a variety of needs. Many realistic models and mannequins with anatomical and physiological capabilities are also available free on loan through The Science Bank. Many of the humane science products available on loan through The Science Bank are available in multiple quantities to outfit entire classrooms, and alternatives can be used in combination, giving students a multi-dimensional experience. The Science Bank always has the latest technologies available to replace the use of animals in K-12, undergraduate, veterinary, and medical education.
Whether training undergraduate or graduate life science, medical, or veterinary students, there is no justifiable reason for dogs and cats to be harmed in the process. With the vast amount and wide variety of available alternatives available to harming and killing dogs and cats for educational purposes, universities can easily and efficiently locate and implement educationally effective humane learning tools into their curriculum. Many colleges and universities are implementing alternatives to harming dogs and cats in the classroom, but there are still a lot of changes that need to be made. Students at all levels of education benefit from learning without harming dogs and cats, as studies indicate they perform as well, and in most cases better, than those who harmed animals. Alternatives to using dogs and cats not only benefit students, but they also save money, are logistically beneficial, and minimize pain and distress to thousands of animal lives. Contact Animalearn for information regarding how to borrow free alternatives from The Science Bank loan program. 1See Conclusion of this report.
2Jukes N. and M. Chiuia, eds. From Guinea Pig to Computer Mouse: Alternative Methods for a Progressive Humane Education, 2nd ed. Leicester, UK.: InterNICHE, 2003.
3Hart, Lynette A., Mary W. Wood, and Benjamin J. Hart. Why Dissection? Westport, CT.: Greenwood Press, 2008.
4Moore, Janet C. “Distance Education: Principles and Practices, Maintaining Quality in Online Education”. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education. (2007). Vol. 34, Issue 3, 243-250.
6“City Tech’s hybrid bio courses resonate with ‘YouTube’ generation”. Targeted News Service. 14 Jan 2008.
8Gillis, R. and Roger J. Haro. “ZooLab: A Website For Animal Biology.” Department of Biology. University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse. 9 Mar 2009 http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/zoolab/welcome.htm.
9Neotek. Cat Dissection library CD-ROM. 20 September 2008. http://www.neotek.com. Available on loan from The Science Bank. https://ssl.perfora.net/animalearn.org//view_sciencebank.php.
10Interactive Technology Group (ITG). Cat Lab CD-ROM. 20 Sep 2008 http://www.itgworld.com/catlabonline/_index.html. Available on loan from The Science Bank, at https://ssl.perfora.net/animalearn.org//view_sciencebank.php.
11Duncan Software. DryLab Suite. 26 Aug 2008 http://www.duncansoftware.com/dsmain.htm. Available on loan from The Science Bank. https://ssl.perfora.net/animalearn.org//view_sciencebank.php.
12Harrison, Nancy L. Review of Alternatives at NSTA Convention. Anaheim, CA. 8 April 2006.
14Touch of Life Technologies. VH Dissector. 5 Sep 2008. http://www.toltech.net/products/vh_dissector/index.htm. Available on loan from The Science Bank. https://ssl.perfora.net/animalearn.org//view_sciencebank.php.
15Primal Pictures. 3D Human Anatomy Medical Software. 7 Sep 2008. http://www.primalpictures.com/Home.aspx.
16A.D.A.M. Inc. Interactive Anatomy. 5 Sep 2008. http://www.adam.com/Our_Products/School_and_Instruction/index.html. Available on loan from The Science Bank. https://ssl.perfora.net/animalearn.org//view_sciencebank.php.
17Rutmanis, Renada. “Anatomy Web Sites Bring Cadavers to Life.” 1 Sep 1999. The Daily Californian. 10 Sep 2008. http://www.dailycal.org/article/163/anatomy_web_sites_bring_cadavers_to_life.
18Ward’s Natural Science. Pregnant Cat Model. 5 Nov 2008. http://wardsci.com/product.asp?pn=IG0013682. Available on loan from The Science Bank. https://ssl.perfora.net/animalearn.org//view_sciencebank.php.
19Rescue Critters! 5 Nov. 2008 http://www.rescuecritters.com/p26A.html.
20Cadavers and specimens often include parts of hands and feet, legs, and arms, and various organ systems.
21The trend toward using human cadavers from willed body programs is even moving into pre-college education. At various high schools nationwide, and through extra-curricular program, students are not relegated to dissecting companion animals and are instead offered this innovative educational experience. Dr. Hubbard, an associate professor of biological sciences at Northern Illinois University, established the High School Short Course in Anatomy in 2002 after being inspired by a former graduate student who went to teach at a school where the curriculum included cat dissection. Voigt, Emily. “Teenagers, Scalpels and Real Cadavers.” The New York Times. 22 Jan. 2008. F6.
22Hart, Lynette A., Mary W. Wood, and Benjamin J. Hart. Why Dissection? Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2008.
23Rasmussen was the brainchild behind Rescue Critters’ Female K-9 Urinary Catheter Training Mannikin.
24Mcnamara, Mary. “Manikin is a dog’s best friend”. 2003 April 15. Los Angeles Times. 30 Jan 2009. http://articles.latimes.com/2003/apr/15/entertainment/et-mary15.
25Can also be used in undergraduate life science courses to replace dog cadaver use.
26Canine Osteology Demo. UCDavis. 26 Sep 2008. http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/HTMLfolder/demos/canineosteodemo.html.
27Can also be used in undergraduate life science courses.
28Animalearn. The Virtual Heart. https://ssl.perfora.net/animalearn.org//view_sciencebank_item.php?id=120.
29“Case Studies in Small Animal Cardiovascular Medicine.” School of Veterinary Medicine. University of California, Davis. 5 Nov 2008. http://www.vmth.ucdavis.edu/cardio/cases/cases.htm.
30Linton, A., Schoenfeld-Tacher, R., Whalen, R. Developing and Implementing an Assessment Method to Evaluate a Virtual Canine Anatomy Program. JVME 2005.
31Computer-Aided Learning in Veterinary Education (CLIVE). 11 Mar 2009. http://www.clive.ed.ac.uk/.
32Computer-Aided Learning in Veterinary Education (CLIVE). “Cases in Clinical Neurology (Dogs and Cats).” 11 March 2009. http://www.clive.ed.ac.uk/clivedisc.asp?id=Ncases.
33Computer-Aided Learning in Veterinary Education (CLIVE). “Diagnostic Procedures in Canine and Feline Dermatology.” 11 March 2009. http://www.clive.ed.ac.uk/clivedisc.asp?id=diagderm.
34Computer-Aided Learning in Veterinary Education (CLIVE). “Normal Canine Retina.” 11 March 2009 http://www.clive.ed.ac.uk/clivedisc.asp?id=retina.
35Computer-Aided Learning in Veterinary Education (CLIVE). “The Canine Abdomen.” 11 March 2009 http://www.clive.ed.ac.uk/clivedisc.asp?id=172.
36“VM 557 Junior Surgery Videos”. College of Veterinary Medicine. Michigan State University. 9 March 2009 http://old.cvm.msu.edu/courses/vm557/surgery/index.html.
37GPI. “Veterinary Models by GPI.” Kappa Medical, Inc. 9 March 2009. http://www.kappamedical.com/veterinary_models_by_gpi.htm.
39Specimens preserved for long-term use.
40AVAR. “Company Uses Ethical Source Cadavers to Create Plastinated Specimens for Anatomy Training.” Alternatives in Veterinary Medical Education 36. (2008): 4.
41Jukes N. and M. Chiuia, eds. From Guinea Pig to Computer Mouse: Alternative Methods for a Progressive Humane Education, 2nd ed. Leicester, UK.: InterNICHE, 2003.
42UC Davis also has a Canine Foreleg Model available.
43UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. Vascular Training Models. 15 Oct. 2008 http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/Academic_programs/vatm.html.
44Colorado State University. College of Engineering News. “SimPooch: An Alternative to Animal Use in Veterinary Curriculum.” College of Engineering News. Colorado State. 26 Nov. 2007.
45British Veterinary Association. “Acupuncture Training with SimPooch”. Vets.TV. 9 Feb 2009. http://vets.tv/video.php?vid=60&cid=.
46Smeak, Daniel. “Teaching Surgery to the Veterinary Novice: The Ohio State University Experience.” JVME 34(5) 2007 AAVMC 620-627. 34.5 (207): 620-627.
47In 2006, in recognition of Dr. Smeak’s efforts in developing alternatives to the traditional use of animal in veterinary surgery instruction, he received the William and Eleanor Cave Award from the Alternatives Research & Development Foundation at the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges Symposium on Education.
48AVAR. “Don’t Do It Over Learning Tool and Universal Skills Based Learning.”. Alternatives in Veterinary Medical Education 31 (Spring 2006) 5.
49Designed by Lara Rasmussen, DVM and Ben Kitchen, DVM.
50AVAR. “Don’t Do It Over Learning Tool and Universal Skills Based Learning.”. Alternatives in Veterinary Medical Education 31 (Spring 2006) 5.
51Rescue Critters! Brand Mannikins. 2 April 2009. http://www.rescuecritters.com. Critical Care Jerry and Critical Care Fluffy are available on loan fromThe Science Bank, at. https://ssl.perfora.net/animalearn.org//view_sciencebank_item.php?id=124. https://ssl.perfora.net/animalearn.org//view_sciencebank_item.php?id=125.
52Mcnamara, Mary. “Manikin is a dog’s best friend”. 2003 Apr 15. Los Angeles Times. 30 Jan 2009 http://articles.latimes.com/2003/apr/15/entertainment/et-mary15.
53Rescue Critters! Critical Care Fluffy. 29 Aug 2008. http://www.rescuecritters.com/p16.htm.
54Rescue Critters! Critical Care Jerry. 29 Aug 2009. http://www.rescuecritters.com/p12.html.
56Rescue Critters! Goldie K-9 BHS Simulator. 23 February 2009. http://www.rescuecritters.com/p29.htm.
57escue Critters! Female K-9 Urinary Ctheter Training Mannikin. 23 February 2009. http://www.rescuecritters.com/p14.htm.
58Rescue Critters! K-9 Intubation Trainer. 23 February 2009. http://www.rescuecritters.com/p7.html.
59An example is the Pulsating Organ Perfusion (POP) Trainer used for minimally invasive surgery training.
60Jukes Nick and M. Chiuia eds. From Guinea Pig to Computer Mouse: Alternative Methods for a Progressive Humane Education, 2nd ed. Leicester, UK: InterNICHE, (2003).
61The students using a POP trainer will often spend extra hours to further develop their skills.
62The DASIE (Dog Abdominal Surrogate for Instructional Exercises), developed at the Ontario Veterinary college, has also been a useful tool for teaching abdominal surgery at a number of institutions.
63Scalese, R and Barry Issenberg. “Effective Use of Simulations for the Teaching and Acquisition of Veterinary Professional and Clinical Skills.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 32 (2005):4.
64Virtual reality is useful for teaching endovascular and endoscopic techniques.
65Ohio State University and Colorado State University are in the process of instituting such programs.
66Technology is also used in human medicine at OSU.
67ARDF is AAVS’ affiliate organization.
68Stredney, Don, et al. “Simulation Technology in Veterinary Education, Research and Surgical Training.” Proceedings 2006 ACVS Veterinary Symposium, The Surgical Summit. Washington D.C., 5-7 Oct 2006.
69Dr. Mary McLoughlin. Ohio State University’s School of Veterinary Medicine. Personal Communication. 26 Aug 2008.
70Also used in medical education.
71Neurosurgery departments at the Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and the Univ. of Miami; Human medical training at the Swaida National Hospital in Syria; International Neurosciences Institutes in Hannover Germany.
72Aboud, Emad, O. Al-Mefty, and M.G. Yasargil. “New Laboratory Model for Neurosurgical Training that Simulates Live Surgery.” Journal of Neurosurgery. 97 (2002):1367-72.
73Ethically sourced cadavers can be obtained through educational memorial programs (EMPs). Aboud, Emad, O. Al-Mefty, and MG Yasargil. New Laboratory Model for Neurosurgical Training that Simulates Live Surgery. Journal of Neurosurgery. 97 (2002):1367-72.
75Requests for Dr. Aboud’s model come from U.S. and international veterinary medical schools.
76See infra Section A3, Part f of this appendix regarding the METI Human Patient Simulator.
77Medical Education Technologies (METI). “Human Patient Simulator”. http://www.meti.com/products_ps_hps.htm.
78Modell, JH, S Cantwell, J Hardcastle, et al. “Using the Human Patient Simulator to Educate Students of Veterinary Medicine.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 29(2002). 111-116:.2.
79A special simulator computer program controls the values for physiological parameters and displays them on the monitors for a variety of technical problems, the physiologic responses to changing clinical conditions of the patient, and to disease states. When medications are given intravenously or by inhalation, the program processes the dose and adjusts the patient’s response appropriately. Modell, JH, S Cantwell, J Hardcastle, et al. “Using the Human Patient Simulator to Educate Students of Veterinary Medicine.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 29(2002). 111-116:.2.
80Modell, JH, S Cantwell, J Hardcastle, et al. “Using the Human Patient Simulator to Educate Students of Veterinary Medicine.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 29(2002). 111-116:.2.
81“Ethically sourced” refers to cadavers and tissues from animals who have died naturally or have been euthanized in response to natural terminal disease or terminal injury. Animals who have been killed specifically to provide cadavers and tissues are not considered ethically sourced. An animal cadaver purchased or obtained because of “companion animal overpopulation” is also not considered an ethically-sourced cadaver.
82AVAR. “Comparisons of Alternatives Offered at Veterinary Schools.” Alternatives in Veterinary Medical Education 34.(2007).
83Kumar, A. “Client donation program to meet the needs of veterinary medical education: Alternatives to healthy animal sacrifice”. Eds. N. Jukes and M. Chiua. Leicester, UK. From Guinea Pig to Computer Mouse: Alternative Methods for Progressive Humane Education 2nd ed. InterNICHE, 2003. 107-116.
84See supra Section A1 of this appendix on undergraduate alternatives.
85College of Veterinary Medicine. Western University. WAVE Program Brochure.
86Responses from first-year veterinary students to the donor program have been positive, and a survey shows it is preferred to animals purchased and/or killed for dissection.
87Kumar, A. Personal communication. 22 Aug 2008.
88Kumar, A., et al. “Client Donation Program for Acquriing Dogs and Cats to Teach Veterinary Gross Anatomy.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 28 (2001): 73-77.
89Vetter, P. “Saying Goodbye to a Beloved Cat and Finding Meaning in Donating a Pet’s Body to Veterinary Medicine”. 21 Jun 2008. American Chronicle. 22 Aug 2008 http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/65768.
90Kumar, A. Personal communication. 22 Aug 2008.
92UCDavis. “New Life-Saving Dog Blood-Donor Program Launched.” 26 February 2008. UCDavis News & Information. 1 April 2009. http://www.news.ucdavis.edu/search/news_detail.lasso?id=8551.
93The teaching hospital carries out 400-500 transfusions for cats, cows, goats, horses, pigs, and sheep annually.
94Donor dogs need to be 1 to 8 years old, weigh 55 pounds or more, and never have been pregnant. “Animal Blood Bank Unveiled at UC Davis.” 26 February 2008. Sacramento News. KCRA.com. 1 April 2009. http://www.kcra.com/news/15418704/detail.html?treets=sac&tid=2654255708813&tml=sac_4pm&tmi=sac_4pm_1_06000302262008&ts=H.
95“Animal Blood Bank Unveiled at UC Davis.” 26 February 2008. Sacramento News. KCRA.com. 1 April 2009. http://www.kcra.com/news/15418704/detail.html?treets=sac&tid=2654255708813&tml=sac_4pm&tmi=sac_4pm_1_06000302262008&ts=H.
96Many of these dogs currently need homes, and the university is looking to place them. UCDavis. “New Life-Saving Dog Blood-Donor Program Launched.” 26 February 2008. UCDavis News & Information. 1 April 2009. http://www.news.ucdavis.edu/search/news_detail.lasso?id=8551
97UCDavis. “New Life-Saving Dog Blood-Donor Program Launched.” 26 February 2008. UCDavis News & Information. 1 April 2009. http://www.news.ucdavis.edu/search/news_detail.lasso?id=8551.
98University of Florida. “FAQs.” University of Florida Veterinary Medical Center. 1 April 2009. http://www.vetmed.ufl.edu/patientcare/services/bloodbank/faq.html.
100Greenfield CL, A.L. Johnson, et al. “Integrating alternative models into the existing surgical curriculum.”. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 21.1 (Sring 1994): 23-27.
101Smeak, Daniel. “Teaching Veterinary Students Using Shelter Animals”. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 35.1(2008): 26-30.
102Martinsen, S. and Nick Jukes. “Towards a Humane Veterinary Education.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 32.(2005): 4.
103Association of Shelter Veterinarians. “Vet Medicine Today: Special Report. The Association of Shelter Veterinarians Veterinary Medical Care Guidelines for Spay-Neuter Programs”. JAVMA 233 (2008):1.
104Smeak, Daniel. “Teaching Veterinary Students Using Shelter Animals”. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 35.1 (2008): 26-30.
105Maddie’s Fund. “About Us: Corporate Background.” Maddie’s Fund. 24 Nov 2008 http://www.maddiesfund.org/aboutus/background.html.
106Bailey, Pat. “$2.2 million grant launches animal-shelter care program.” Dateline UC Davis. 8 December 2000. 24 November 2008. http://www.dateline.ucdavis.edu/dl_detail.lasso?id=7496.
107“Beyond Katrina: Three Years Later, HSUS Gulf Coast Programs Flourish”. 28 Aug 2008. The Humane Society of the United States. 3 Sep 2008. http://www.hsus.org/hsus_field/hsus_disaster_center/disasters_press_room/beyond_katrina_three_years_later_0802808.html.
108Please see University of Georgia. Supra pg. 10.
109Vickroy, Thomas W, M.D. Professor of Physiological Sciences, Interim Dean for Students and Instruction, University of Florida, College of Veterinary Medicine. Personal Communication. 9 June 2008.
110llg, Gwendy Reyes. Personal Communication. 20 May 2008.
111Oregon State University. OSU Vet Med College Begins Partnership with Oregon Humane Society in Portland. 14 Sep, 2007. Oregon State University. 1 Mar 2009 http://oregonstate.edu/dept/ncs/newsarch/2007/Sep07/humanesociety.html.
112Smeak, Daniel D., “Teaching Veterinary Students Using Shelter Animals.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education. 35.1 (2008):28.
113Oregon State University. OSU Vet Med College Begins Partnership with Oregon Humane Society in Portland. 14 Sep 2007. Oregon State University. 1 Mar 2009.2009 http://oregonstate.edu/dept/ncs/newsarch/2007/Sep07/humanesociety.html.
114Smeak, Daniel D., “Teaching Veterinary Students Using Shelter Animals.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education. 35.1 (2008):28.
115 Griffin, Brenda, DVM. “The Untouchable Bond: Promoting Care and Control of Feral and Free-Roaming Cats.” Maddie’s Shelter Medicine Program: Auburn University. Maddie’s Fund. 21 Oct 2008. http://www.maddiesfund.org/projects/vetschool_auburn_catnap.html.
116According to Alley Cat Allies, there are tens of millions of stray cats on the streets in the United States.
117Cummings, Karen. “TNR: The Humane Alternative”. ASPCA Animal Watch 23.3 (Fall 2003). Found on Petfinder.com. 1 Jul 2008. www.petfinder.com/journal/index.egi?.
118Cats on Campus program. Alley Cat Allies. 28 Oct 2008. http://www.alleycat.org/NetCommunity/Page.aspx?pid=314.
119Mott, Maryann. “U.S. Faces Growing Feral Cat Problem.” 7 Sep 2004. National Geographic News. 7 Apr 2009. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/pf/10021388.html.
120Griffin, Brenda, DVM. “Maddie’s Shelter Medicine Program: Auburn University. The Untouchable Bond: Promoting Care and Control of Feral and Free-Roaming Cats.” Maddie’s Fund. 21 Oct 2008 http://www.maddiesfund.org/projects/vetschool_auburn_catnap.html.
121Hansen, L, and Gerry R. Boss. “Use of Live Animals in the Curricula of U.S. Medical Schools: Survey Results from 2001.” Academic Medicine 77(2002):1147-1149.
122Ammons, SW. “Use of live animals in the curricula of US medical schools in 1994”. Academic Medicine 70.8(August 1995):739-743.
123Koniaris, L, D. Kaufman, TA Zimmers, et al. “Two third year medical student-level laboratory shock exercises without large animals.” Surgical Infections 5.4 (Winter 2004): 343-348.
124Kulpa-Eddy, Jodie, Margaret Snyder, and William Stokes. “A Review of Trends in Animal Use in the United States (1972-2006).” AATEX 14, Special Issue. Proc. 6th World Congress in Alternatives & Animal Use in the Life Sciences. 14(2008): 163-165.
125Unfortunately, in some cases, such as at the Medical College of Wisconsin, terminal pig labs are being used as a replacement for terminal dog labs, instead of using viable alternatives such as simulations and mannequins.
126Balcombe, J. “Medical Training Using Simulation: Toward fewer animals and Safer Patients.” ATLA Supplement 1.32(2004): 533-560.
127Balcombe, J. “Medical Training Using Simulation: Toward fewer animals and Safer Patients.” ATLA Supplement 1.32(2004): 533-560.
128Scalese, R and Barry Issenberg. “Effective Use of Simulations for the Teaching and Acquisition of Veterinary Professional and Clinical Skills.” Journal of Veterminary Medical Education 32 (2005): 4.
129See supra Section A2 of this appendix on surgical simulators in veterinary education.
130Samsel et al. “Cardiovascular physiology teaching: Computer simulations vs. animal demonstrations”. American Journal of Physiology 266 (1994): 36-46.
132American Medical Student Association. “Principles Regarding Vivisection in Medical Education.” (2007) 4 February 2009. http://www.amsa.org/about/ppp/vivi.cfm.
134American Medical Student Association. “Principles Regarding Vivisection in Medical Education.” (1993) 9 February 2009. http://www.amsa.org/about/ppp/vivi.cfm.
135American Medical Student Association. “Principles Regarding Vivisection in Medical Education.” (1993) 9 February 2009. http://www.amsa.org/about/ppp/vivi.cfm.
136American Medical Student Association. “Principles Regarding Vivisection in Medical Education.” (1986) 4 February 2009. http://www.amsa.org/about/ppp/vivi.cfm.
137Cats, kittens, and other animals are sometimes used in intubation. Please See Class B Dealers C&C Kennels subsection. Supra pg. 27.
138Smith, I. “American Heart Association Agrees with PETA About Eliminating Animal Labs.” 13 February 2009. RushPRNews. 17 March 2009. http://www.rushprnews.com/2009/02/13/american-heart-association-disapproves-testing-on-animal-labs-memo-reveals/.
139cLabs software. http://www.clabs.de. 24 Aug 2008.
140Thieme Publishers. http://search.thieme.com/query.html?tokenid=SID2473569430801&start=1&qp=front%3Ayes&qt=virtual+physiology+series&x=0&y=024. Aug 2008.
141Balcombe, J. “Medical Training Using Simulation: Toward fewer animals and Safer Patients.” ATLA Supplement 1.32(2004): 533-560.
142Drone, J. “New directions for Medical Education.” Good Medicine 14 (1999).
143Issenberg, S.B., W.C. McGaghie, I.R. Hart, et al. “Simulation technology for health care professional skills training and assessment”. Journal of American Medical Association 282 (September 1999): 861-866.
144See supra section A2 of this appendix regarding veterinary alternatives.
145This simulator, developed at the University of Arkansas, and funded in part by ARDF, offers a realistic alternative to live surgery.
146Aboud, Emad, O. Al-Mefty, and M.G. Yasargil. “New Laboratory Model for Neurosurgical Training that Simulates Live Surgery.” Journal of Neurosurgery. 97 (2002):1367-72.
147Ethically sourced cadavers can be obtained through educational memorial programs (EMPs). See supra section on EMPS. Aboud, Emad, O. Al-Mefty, and MG Yasargil. New Laboratory Model for Neurosurgical Training that Simulates Live Surgery. Journal of Neurosurgery. 97 (2002):1367-72.
149Requests for Dr. Aboud’s model come from U.S. and international veterinary medical schools.
150See supra Section A2 d of this appendix regarding the METI Human Patient Simulator.
151Medical Education Technologies (METI). “Human Patient Simulator”. http://www.meti.com/products_ps_hps.htm.
152A special simulator computer program controls the values for physiological parameters and displays them on the monitors for a variety of technical problems, the physiologic responses to changing clinical conditions of the patient, and to disease states. When medications are given intravenously or by inhalation, the program processes the dose and adjusts the patient’s response appropriately.
153Immersion Medical. “Surgical Simulators: Endoscopy.” 3 Feb 2009. http://www.immersion.com/medical/products/endoscopy/.
154Balcombe, J. “Medical Training Using Simulation: Toward fewer animals and Safer Patients.” ATLA Supplement 1.32(2004): 533-560.
156“Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 17. Nextmed: Design for the Well Being.” Nextmed. http://www.nextmed.com/index.html. 5 November 2008.
157 Animalearn. www.animalearn.org.
158“Cost Comparison Sheet”. Animalearn. https://ssl.perfora.net/animalearn.org//resources01.php. 3 Feb. 2009.
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